Answer the following questions to see how your political beliefs match your political parties and candidates.
The 2011 Irish census found 49,204 Muslims in the Republic of Ireland, constituting 1.07% of that state's population and at the time of the 2001 UK Census there were 1,943 living in Northern Ireland.
Irish welfare benefits for intra-EU migrants are amongst the highest in the EU in the areas of job seekers allowance, healthcare, old-age pensions, and child benefit. The Irish Examiner recently reported that more than a 20% of unemployment benefits recipients in Ireland are from other EU countries. In Germany, for example, 2.5% of unemployment benefit recipients are from other EU countries.
The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.
In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.
The President of Ireland is directly elected by secret ballot using the Alternative Vote, the single-winner analogue of the Single Transferable Vote. Presently, only Irish citizens resident in the Republic aged eighteen or over may vote; a 1983 bill to extend the right to resident British citizens was ruled unconstitutional. However, there have been many suggestions for reforming the office of President and its election process over the years. In March 2017, the government proposed holding a referendum on whether Irish citizens living outside the country, including in Northern Ireland, should be able to vote in Irish presidential elections, with the vote expected to go ahead during 2018.
Two constitutional referendums were held simultaneously in Ireland on 4 October 2013. The Thirty-second Amendment of the Constitution Bill 2013 proposed abolishing the Seanad, the upper house of the Oireachtas, and was rejected despite opinion polls to the contrary, whilst the Thirty-third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 2013 proposed the establishment of a Court of Appeal to sit between the High Court and the Supreme Court, taking over the existing appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, and was approved by voters.
In 2015, Ireland will move towards decriminalizing substances including heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The program will also create designated rooms in Dublin where heroin users can inject themselves. Proponents of legalisation argue that instead of shaming addicts, Ireland’s drug policy should focus on treating them. Opponents argue that legalization program encourages widespread drug use.
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.
A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. In Ireland the President is limited to two seven year terms. The Prime Minister and Dáil Éireann must be re-elected every five years.
In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.
DRI chair TJ McIntyre warned that Irish law in the area of accessing communication data is quickly becoming a "crucial one" given the presence here of top internet giants, such as Google, Microsoft and Twitter. He said courts and governments in the US and the UK were exploring whether their laws could reach into Ireland and force these companies to disclose personal data. And he said that a pending High Court case taken by DRI is likely to strike down Ireland's laws on data retention. "We have almost nothing in comparative terms [regarding oversight] to what they have in Britain," said Mr McIntyre, a law lecturer in University College Dublin.
A united Ireland is a proposed sovereign state covering all of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland.
Peter Robinson, leader of the majority pro-British Democratic Unionist Party and the government’s first minister resigned in 2015. This made the multiparty executive branch obsolete since it could not function if either of the two largest parties refused to participate. The controversy arose after Kevin McGuigan was murdered and members of the police claimed that the IRA was still active. Proponents argue that leaders from Britain, Ireland and Sinn Fein should start negotiations to repair the peace agreement and restore the power-sharing government. Opponents argue that the murder of Mr. McGuigan proves that there is too much unrest to build a power-sharing government right now.
In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house). Unlike Dáil Éireann, it is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members chosen by various methods. Under Article 18 of the Constitution, Seanad Éireann consists of sixty senators: Eleven nominated by the Taoiseach (prime minister); Six elected by the graduates of the University of Dublin and the National University of Ireland; 43 elected from five special panels of nominees (known as Vocational Panels) by an electorate consisting of TDs (member of Dáil Éireann), outgoing senators and members of city and county councils.
Gavin Kelleher of Goodbody Stockbrokers estimates the gross revenue from gambling in Ireland is about €1.1 billion a year (He stresses that it’s impossible to be certain). Opponents of a gambling ban argue that making it illegal will turn the business over to the black market where it will be unregulated and untaxable. Proponents of a ban argue that online gambling is causing a dramatic increase in the number of gambling addicts.
Health care in Ireland is two-tier: public and private sectors exist. The public health care system is governed by the Health Act 2004, which established a new body to be responsible for providing health and personal social services to everyone living in Ireland – the Health Service Executive. The new national health service came into being officially on 1st January 2005; however the new structures are currently in the process of being established as the reform programme continues. In addition to the public-sector, there is also a large private healthcare market.
Healthcare in Ireland is financed by the state. Citizens have the option of buying additional private health insurance. There are public as well as private hospitals. Private patients are often treated in public hospitals, as by definition all privately insured patients have an entitlement to use the publicly funded system.
Marijuana is currently illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in Ireland. People caught possessing small amounts of marijuana may receive a fine of up to €1,269. Those in possession of large amounts of marijuana may be charged with trafficking and sentenced to long prison terms.
Vaccine passports offer proof of immunity to people who have been inoculated with a vaccine. The concept gained traction after 2 vaccines were introduced to help combat the Coronavirus pandemic in November 2020. A vaccine passport would allow individuals to stop wearing masks if they could they have been inoculated and so aren’t a risk to others. Countries could require foreign visitors to have the passports in order to cross their border and restaurants, theaters and offices may make them mandatory in order to enter their premises. More than a dozen countries including Ghana and Nigeria currently require proof of vaccination against yellow fever before they are issued a visa.
The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.
In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.
Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Since plans for a nuclear power plant at Carnsore Point in County Wexford were dropped in the 1970s, nuclear power in Ireland has been off the agenda. Ireland gets about 60% of its energy from gas, 15% from renewable and the remainder from coal and peat. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.
Vaccines are not required in Ireland although the Department of Health strongly recommend vaccinations.
Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. In 2013, the Oireachtas approved the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act which allows abortion to be performed on women whose lives are endangered during pregnancy. Proponents of abortion rights claim that since the 1970s more than 170,000 Irish women have left Ireland to have abortions and the ban is discriminatory towards women. Opponents of abortion argue that unborn fetus’s should be afforded the same rights as human beings.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.
In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. In Ireland 8% of corporate boards seat women directors which is less than the UK (22.8%), US (19.2%), Canada (20.8%) and Australia (23.6%). In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.
Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Assisted suicide is currently illegal in Ireland but legal in the EU states of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. Proponents argue that assisted suicide affords terminally ill people the compassion they deserve. Opponents argue that laws legalising euthanasia are dangerous and could lead to the unnecessary deaths of senior citizens.
In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.
Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.
Same sex marriage has been legal in Ireland since the Oireachtas passed the Marriage Act of 2015. Ireland was the first country to approve same sex marriage by a popular vote. Opponents of the act, including several catholic bishops argued that the purpose of marriage is to reproduce and the act undermines the unions of heterosexual couples. Proponents argue that same sex couples should be awarded the same rights and government benefits as heterosexual couples.
Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. Brazil abolished capital punishment in 1889.
In 2010, teachers were told that Muslims would not be permitted to wear the niqab, the garment covering the entire body except for slits across the eyes. The guidance, circulated in Ireland by bishops among more than 450 schools, said that although staff should respect the religious rights of non-Catholics, it was "unsatisfactory for a teacher not to be able to see and engage properly with a pupil whose face was covered". Opponents of the ban argue that it religious expression is a basic human right and muslims should be able to wear the Niqab in every school. Proponents of the ban argue that the Niqab is a religious symbol that should not be worn at Catholic Schools.
Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.
Domestic water charges were introduced in 2015 for Irish homes that are connected to a public water supply or to public wastewater services. Irish Water, the national water utility, administers the water charges. However, the Water Services (Amendment) Act 2016 suspended the issuing of domestic water bills for the second quarter of 2016. It also suspended domestic water charges for 9 months, from 1st July 2016 to 31st March 2017, with no charging or billing of domestic customers during that period. This suspension has been extended for a further 4 months by the Water Services Act (Extension of Suspension of Domestic Water Charges Order 2017).
In October 2015, Minister of Finance Michael Noonan announced the Irish government would implement a total of €750 million in tax cuts, with a similar increase in spending. That will leave the government with a budget deficit of 1.2% of gross domestic product, down from 2.1% in 2014 and a peak of 32.5% in 2010. The government expects the economy to grow by 6.2% this year, before slowing to 4.3% in 2016 and 3% thereafter.
The estate tax is a tax that is levied on all property that is declared in a deceased person's will. The tax is also known as the "inheritance tax" or "death tax." In 2016 the tax free threshold for asset transfers from a parent to a child is set to increase by 24 per cent to €280,000. Proponents of the tax argue that more estates should be subject to the tax and the threshold should be lowered from 24% to 20%. Opponents of the tax argue that people who have paid income taxes their entire life should not be subject to another tax when they die.
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.
5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. Ireland does not currently test welfare recipients for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.
In 2014, the EU passed legislation that capped bankers’ bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on bankers’ pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank’s costs to rise.
A state-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. During the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak Larry Kudlow, the White House’s top economic advisor, said the Trump administration would consider asking for an equity stake in corporations that needed taxpayer aid. “One of the ideas is, if we provide assistance, we might take an equity position,” Kudlow said Wednesday at the White House, adding that the 2008 bailout of [the automaker General Motors] had been a good deal for the federal government. After the 2008 financial crisis the US Government invested $51 billion into GM’s bankruptcy through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. In 2013 the Government sold its stake in GM for $39 billion. The Center for Automotive Research found that the bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved 34.9 billion in tax revenue. Proponents argue that US taxpayers deserve a return on their investments if private companies need capital. Opponents argue that governments should never own shares of private companies.
Women in Ireland currently earn an average of 14.4 percent less than men. The pay gap in Italy has increased by 4 percent in five years, up from 12.4 percent in 2008. The average EU pay gap between men and women is 16.4 percent.
In January of 2016, the Low Pay Commission raised the Irish minimum wage to €9.15 per hour. Minister for Business and Employment Ged Nash estimated that 124,000 workers in Ireland would receive a 50 cent increase. The Labour party has proposed further wage increases of €9.65 in 2017, €10.15 in 2018, €10.65 in 2019 and €11.15 in 2020. Proponents of the wage increase stimulates the economy by shifting more income into the working class. Opponents argue that minimum wage increases hurt small businesses and increase unemployment.
An economic stimulus is a monetary or fiscal policy enacted by governments with the intent of stabilizing their economies during a fiscal crisis. The policies include an increase in government spending on infrastructure, tax cuts and lowering interest rates. In 2012 the Irish government invested €2.25 billion euros in a number of delayed road, school and health-care construction projects.
The corporate tax rate in Ireland is 12.5 percent and is one of the lowest in the developed world. Many multinational companies including Microsoft, Apple and Google base their company in Ireland. The Irish government is proposing cutting that rate in half for company’s earnings on patents and intellectual property. Proponents of the lower tax rate argue that the lower rate incentivizes companies to set up offices in Ireland and create jobs. Opponents argue that Ireland is being used as an off-shore tax haven for large companies and the rate should be raised to match other EU countries.
There are currently 55 trade unions with membership of Congress, representing about 600,000 workers in Ireland. Unions members represent 35% of the country’s labor force, down from 55% in 1980. 50% of union members are in the public sector. Opponents of Ireland’s unions argue that public sector workers have too many benefits and the government cannot adjust them due to union contracts. Proponents argue that unions give workers a collective voice that is necessary to negotiate pay and worker safety.
A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners. Workers in Ireland can begin receiving pension payments at the age of 65. Each retired worker may receive up to €11,975.60 per year. The age at which a worker may start receiving pensions will increase to 67 in 2021 and 68 in 2028. Opponents of pension increases argue that they will lead to higher taxes on younger generations due to the declining birthrate. Proponents argue that pensions should be increased to match inflation and support the elderly.
In 2019 the European Union and U.S. Democratic Presidential Candidate Elizabeth Warren issued proposals that would regulate Facebook, Google and Amazon. Senator Warren proposed that the U.S. government should designate tech companies who have global revenue of over $25 billion as “platform utilities" and break them up into smaller companies. Senator Warren argues that the companies have “bulldozed competition, used our private information for profit, and tilted the playing field against everyone else.” Lawmakers in the European Union proposed a set of rules which include a blacklist of unfair trading practices, requirements that companies set up an internal system to handle complaints and allow businesses to group together to sue platforms. Opponents argue that these companies have benefited consumers by providing free online tools and bring more competition into commerce. Opponents also point out that history has shown that dominance in technology is a revolving door and that many companies (including IBM in the 1980’s) have cycled through it with little to no help from the government.
The United Nations reported that more than one million Syrian refugees fled to Europe in 2015. Ireland will accept 2,622 Syrian refugees by the end of 2016. Proponents argue that Italy should do its part to aid migrants fleeing ISIS. Opponents argue that the government does not have sufficient background checks in place to prevent an immigrant from carrying out a terrorist attack.
In January of 1973, the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union (EU). Proponents argue that leaving the EU could cost Ireland a permanent loss of 3.1% GDP. Opponents of EU membership argue that it leaves Ireland's economy vulnerable to the economic declines of other European countries including Italy and Greece.
Military Service is currently not required in Ireland.