Answer the following questions to see how your political beliefs match your political parties and candidates.
In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.
The President of Ireland is directly elected by secret ballot using the Alternative Vote, the single-winner analogue of the Single Transferable Vote. Presently, only Irish citizens resident in the Republic aged eighteen or over may vote; a 1983 bill to extend the right to resident British citizens was ruled unconstitutional. However, there have been many suggestions for reforming the office of President and its election process over the years. In March 2017, the government proposed holding a referendum on whether Irish citizens living outside the country, including in Northern Ireland, should be able to vote in Irish presidential elections, with the vote expected to go ahead during 2018.
The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.
Two constitutional referendums were held simultaneously in Ireland on 4 October 2013. The Thirty-second Amendment of the Constitution Bill 2013 proposed abolishing the Seanad, the upper house of the Oireachtas, and was rejected despite opinion polls to the contrary, whilst the Thirty-third Amendment of the Constitution Bill 2013 proposed the establishment of a Court of Appeal to sit between the High Court and the Supreme Court, taking over the existing appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, and was approved by voters.
Health care in Ireland is two-tier: public and private sectors exist. The public health care system is governed by the Health Act 2004, which established a new body to be responsible for providing health and personal social services to everyone living in Ireland – the Health Service Executive. The new national health service came into being officially on 1st January 2005; however the new structures are currently in the process of being established as the reform programme continues. In addition to the public-sector, there is also a large private healthcare market.
Healthcare in Ireland is financed by the state. Citizens have the option of buying additional private health insurance. There are public as well as private hospitals. Private patients are often treated in public hospitals, as by definition all privately insured patients have an entitlement to use the publicly funded system.
Marijuana is currently illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in Ireland. People caught possessing small amounts of marijuana may receive a fine of up to €1,269. Those in possession of large amounts of marijuana may be charged with trafficking and sentenced to long prison terms.
In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.
The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.
In September 2021 Italy became the first European Country to make COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers. By the end of the same month Canada, the United States, Australia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan all announced similar vaccine mandates. Proponents of the mandate argue that these mandates are the only way to end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Opponents cite evidence that people who already have natural immunity are at heightened risk of vaccine side effects caused by an augmented inflammatory response.
Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Although third-level tuition has been free in Ireland since 1997, for other student expenses most of the major banks offer interest-free or cut-rate loans to students. There has been discussion on re-introducing fees, as recommended by the OECD, with deferred payment similar to the Australian system; i.e., a loan from the government repaid after graduation.
In 2010, teachers were told that Muslims would not be permitted to wear the niqab, the garment covering the entire body except for slits across the eyes. The guidance, circulated in Ireland by bishops among more than 450 schools, said that although staff should respect the religious rights of non-Catholics, it was "unsatisfactory for a teacher not to be able to see and engage properly with a pupil whose face was covered". Opponents of the ban argue that it religious expression is a basic human right and muslims should be able to wear the Niqab in every school. Proponents of the ban argue that the Niqab is a religious symbol that should not be worn at Catholic Schools.
The "Free Tuition Fees Scheme" covers first time Irish or other EU undergraduates on approved full-time courses in publicly funded colleges. It does not cover students who may be repeating a year of their degree programme or students who are taking a second undergraduate degree. Opponents argue that foreign students should pay full tuition and should not be subsidised by Irish taxpayers. Proponents argue that offering the programme to international students helps attract skilled workers from other countries to Ireland.
Irish is given recognition by the Irish Constitution as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland (English is the other official language). Although the Irish requirement was also dropped for wider public service jobs, Irish remains a required subject of study in all schools within the Republic which receive public money. Those wishing to teach in primary schools in the State must also pass a compulsory examination called Scrúdú Cáilíochta sa Ghaeilge (Examination for Quality in Irish). The need for a pass in Leaving Certificate Irish or English for entry to an Garda Síochána (police) was introduced in September 2005, and recruits are given lessons in the language during their two years of training. The most important official documents of the Irish government must be published in both Irish and English or Irish alone (in accordance with the Official Languages Act 2003, enforced by An Coimisinéir Teanga, the Irish language ombudsman).
The 2011 Irish census found 49,204 Muslims in the Republic of Ireland, constituting 1.07% of that state's population and at the time of the 2001 UK Census there were 1,943 living in Northern Ireland.
Irish welfare benefits for intra-EU migrants are amongst the highest in the EU in the areas of job seekers allowance, healthcare, old-age pensions, and child benefit. The Irish Examiner recently reported that more than a 20% of unemployment benefits recipients in Ireland are from other EU countries. In Germany, for example, 2.5% of unemployment benefit recipients are from other EU countries.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
The United Nations reported that more than one million Syrian refugees fled to Europe in 2015. Ireland will accept 2,622 Syrian refugees by the end of 2016. Proponents argue that Italy should do its part to aid migrants fleeing ISIS. Opponents argue that the government does not have sufficient background checks in place to prevent an immigrant from carrying out a terrorist attack.
The average EU country spends 1.3% of its GDP on defence. Ireland currently spends .5% (a decline of .4% since 2008). Proponents of higher defence spending argue that the low spending puts the country at risk and the spending level should be raised to match other developed EU countries. Opponents argue that raising spending is unnecessary since armed conflicts can be prevented through diplomacy.
In 2013 Ireland gave €628 million in overseas aid. The government states that the aim of Ireland's aid programme is to reduce poverty and hunger, particularly in sub- Saharan Africa. It supports long term development and provides humanitarian assistance in over eighty of the world's poorest countries.
The UK and Northern Ireland are scheduled to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Under a transition agreement all trade and economic relations between the UK and the EU will remain the same until the end of 2022. In 2018 members of parliament and Prime Minister Theresa May proposed a “backstop” which would allow the UK and Northern Ireland to remain inside the EU’s single market for goods and farm products. Proponents argue that keeping the UK in the EU’s customers area will boost the economy by streamlining trade and tourism. Opponents, including anti-EU lawmakers, argue that the backstop would lock the UK inside the EU’s customs area permanently and prevent it from signing trade deals on its own.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
In January of 1973, the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union (EU). Proponents argue that leaving the EU could cost Ireland a permanent loss of 3.1% GDP. Opponents of EU membership argue that it leaves Ireland's economy vulnerable to the economic declines of other European countries including Italy and Greece.
Military Service is currently not required in Ireland.
Ireland has been neutral in international relations since the 1930s. The nature of Irish neutrality has varied over time, and has been contested since the 1970s. In 2012, the Oireachtas established a joint committee to review petitions submitted by the public on the matter. An early petition sought clarification of government policy in relation to the use of Irish airspace by foreign military aircraft. In 2013–16 the committee held discussions with the petitioners, government members, the Secretary General of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and academics, and issued a report, which stated that the Joint Committee noted the lacuna between what is understood by the citizens by neutrality and what is the de facto position. Accordingly, the Joint Committee recommend that the Dáil and Seanad debate the matter of neutrality with a view to the holding of a Referendum so that the will of the people can be determined.
In November 2018 German chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that they would support the creation of a European army. Ms. Merkel said that the EU should rely less on the U.S. for military support and that “Europeans should take our fate more into our own hands if we want to survive as a European community.” Ms. Merkley said the army would not oppose NATO. President Marcon said the army is needed to protect the EU against China, Russia and the United States. Proponents argue that the EU lacks a united defence force to handle sudden conflicts outside of NATO. Opponents question how the army would fund itself since many EU countries spend less than 2% of their GDP on defence.
Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.
Domestic water charges were introduced in 2015 for Irish homes that are connected to a public water supply or to public wastewater services. Irish Water, the national water utility, administers the water charges. However, the Water Services (Amendment) Act 2016 suspended the issuing of domestic water bills for the second quarter of 2016. It also suspended domestic water charges for 9 months, from 1st July 2016 to 31st March 2017, with no charging or billing of domestic customers during that period. This suspension has been extended for a further 4 months by the Water Services Act (Extension of Suspension of Domestic Water Charges Order 2017).
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. Ireland does not currently test welfare recipients for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.
In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.
The estate tax is a tax that is levied on all property that is declared in a deceased person's will. The tax is also known as the "inheritance tax" or "death tax." In 2016 the tax free threshold for asset transfers from a parent to a child is set to increase by 24 per cent to €280,000. Proponents of the tax argue that more estates should be subject to the tax and the threshold should be lowered from 24% to 20%. Opponents of the tax argue that people who have paid income taxes their entire life should not be subject to another tax when they die.
In 2014, the EU passed legislation that capped bankers’ bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on bankers’ pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank’s costs to rise.
Cryptocurrencies are a collection of binary data which is designed to work as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored on a public ledger using strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to control the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of ownership.
An economic stimulus is a monetary or fiscal policy enacted by governments with the intent of stabilizing their economies during a fiscal crisis. The policies include an increase in government spending on infrastructure, tax cuts and lowering interest rates. In 2012 the Irish government invested €2.25 billion euros in a number of delayed road, school and health-care construction projects.
A state-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. During the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak Larry Kudlow, the White House’s top economic advisor, said the Trump administration would consider asking for an equity stake in corporations that needed taxpayer aid. “One of the ideas is, if we provide assistance, we might take an equity position,” Kudlow said Wednesday at the White House, adding that the 2008 bailout of [the automaker General Motors] had been a good deal for the federal government. After the 2008 financial crisis the US Government invested $51 billion into GM’s bankruptcy through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. In 2013 the Government sold its stake in GM for $39 billion. The Center for Automotive Research found that the bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved 34.9 billion in tax revenue. Proponents argue that US taxpayers deserve a return on their investments if private companies need capital. Opponents argue that governments should never own shares of private companies.
Decentralized Finance (commonly referred to as DeFi) is a blockchain based and cryptographically secure form of finance. Inspired after the financial crisis of 2008, DeFi does not rely on central financial intermediaries such as brokerages, exchanges, or banks to offer traditional financial instruments, and instead utilizes smart contracts on blockchains, the most common being Ethereum. DeFi platforms allow people to verify any transfer of ownership, lend or borrow funds from others, speculate on price movements on a range of assets using derivatives, trade cryptocurrencies, insure against risks, and earn interest in savings-like accounts. Proponents argue that decentralized protocols have already revolutionized the security and efficiency of many existing industries and the financial industry is long overdue. Opponents argue that the anonymity of decentralized protocols make it easier for criminals to transfer funds. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-O3r2YMWJ4" target="_blank">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-O3r2YMWJ4></a>
In January of 2016, the Low Pay Commission raised the Irish minimum wage to €9.15 per hour. Minister for Business and Employment Ged Nash estimated that 124,000 workers in Ireland would receive a 50 cent increase. The Labour party has proposed further wage increases of €9.65 in 2017, €10.15 in 2018, €10.65 in 2019 and €11.15 in 2020. Proponents of the wage increase stimulates the economy by shifting more income into the working class. Opponents argue that minimum wage increases hurt small businesses and increase unemployment.
Women in Ireland currently earn an average of 14.4 percent less than men. The pay gap in Italy has increased by 4 percent in five years, up from 12.4 percent in 2008. The average EU pay gap between men and women is 16.4 percent.
In October 2015, Minister of Finance Michael Noonan announced the Irish government would implement a total of €750 million in tax cuts, with a similar increase in spending. That will leave the government with a budget deficit of 1.2% of gross domestic product, down from 2.1% in 2014 and a peak of 32.5% in 2010. The government expects the economy to grow by 6.2% this year, before slowing to 4.3% in 2016 and 3% thereafter.
There are currently 55 trade unions with membership of Congress, representing about 600,000 workers in Ireland. Unions members represent 35% of the country’s labor force, down from 55% in 1980. 50% of union members are in the public sector. Opponents of Ireland’s unions argue that public sector workers have too many benefits and the government cannot adjust them due to union contracts. Proponents argue that unions give workers a collective voice that is necessary to negotiate pay and worker safety.
The corporate tax rate in Ireland is 12.5 percent and is one of the lowest in the developed world. Many multinational companies including Microsoft, Apple and Google base their company in Ireland. The Irish government is proposing cutting that rate in half for company’s earnings on patents and intellectual property. Proponents of the lower tax rate argue that the lower rate incentivizes companies to set up offices in Ireland and create jobs. Opponents argue that Ireland is being used as an off-shore tax haven for large companies and the rate should be raised to match other EU countries.
A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners. Workers in Ireland can begin receiving pension payments at the age of 65. Each retired worker may receive up to €11,975.60 per year. The age at which a worker may start receiving pensions will increase to 67 in 2021 and 68 in 2028. Opponents of pension increases argue that they will lead to higher taxes on younger generations due to the declining birthrate. Proponents argue that pensions should be increased to match inflation and support the elderly.
Vaccines are not required in Ireland although the Department of Health strongly recommend vaccinations.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Since plans for a nuclear power plant at Carnsore Point in County Wexford were dropped in the 1970s, nuclear power in Ireland has been off the agenda. Ireland gets about 60% of its energy from gas, 15% from renewable and the remainder from coal and peat. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.
In 2015, Ireland will move towards decriminalizing substances including heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The program will also create designated rooms in Dublin where heroin users can inject themselves. Proponents of legalisation argue that instead of shaming addicts, Ireland’s drug policy should focus on treating them. Opponents argue that legalization program encourages widespread drug use.
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.
In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.
A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. In Ireland the President is limited to two seven year terms. The Prime Minister and Dáil Éireann must be re-elected every five years.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house). Unlike Dáil Éireann, it is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members chosen by various methods. Under Article 18 of the Constitution, Seanad Éireann consists of sixty senators: Eleven nominated by the Taoiseach (prime minister); Six elected by the graduates of the University of Dublin and the National University of Ireland; 43 elected from five special panels of nominees (known as Vocational Panels) by an electorate consisting of TDs (member of Dáil Éireann), outgoing senators and members of city and county councils.
In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”
A united Ireland is a proposed sovereign state covering all of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland.
DRI chair TJ McIntyre warned that Irish law in the area of accessing communication data is quickly becoming a "crucial one" given the presence here of top internet giants, such as Google, Microsoft and Twitter. He said courts and governments in the US and the UK were exploring whether their laws could reach into Ireland and force these companies to disclose personal data. And he said that a pending High Court case taken by DRI is likely to strike down Ireland's laws on data retention. "We have almost nothing in comparative terms [regarding oversight] to what they have in Britain," said Mr McIntyre, a law lecturer in University College Dublin.